Agricultural establishments, which are also work places subject to occupational health and safety legislation, have to be illuminated adequately in times of insufficient daylight supply to facilitate smooth and safe work processes. Good clarity within buildings and sufficient lighting at workstations, around the courtyard area and in traffic areas help avoid accidents and promotes cleanliness.
Fundamentally, all rooms and traffic areas (indoors and outdoors) have to provide sufficient observation lighting, while particular workstations have to provide elevated illuminance according to table 1.131 with adequate uniformity. Good lighting prevents accidents and increases attention as well as productivity.
In agricultural operations, maintenance and most of all cleaning of light fixtures is particularly important to prevent illuminance from falling beneath the minimum values. Maintenance factors of up to 0,50 can become necessary in cases of extreme soiling (dust accumulation) for lighting design (q.v. chapter 1.3.1 “Maintenance factor”).
The selection of luminaires regarding protection against the ingress of dust and moisture (protection rating) and protection against hazardous contact voltage (safety class) conforms to the room conditions (see chapter 2.1.11 “Electrical safety”). They should be installed on the ceiling where possible, with wall installation being the exception for special cases.
Indoors and outdoors, LED luminaires are favoured. In case of intensive livestock farming the resistance to ammonia must be considered. This affects the plastic housing, seals and mounting parts of the luminaire but also, if applicable, the insulation of the LEDs against contact with incoming gases from the exterior environment. Weatherproof luminaires are certified by the German Testzentrum für Technik und Betriebsmittel der Deutschen Landwirtschaftsgesellschaft e. V. (www.dlg.org), particularly regarding a 20-year resistance to ammonia.
Daylight-dependent lighting control and motion detectors for outdoor lighting contribute to energy savings.
Special lighting installations with increased infrared components may be necessary, e.g. for poultry breeding.