Since street luminaires are operated outdoors, their light has a direct impact on flora and fauna – both in natural spaces and in the city. When evaluating the sustainability of an LED luminaire, it is therefore also necessary to analyse its effects on nature and species conservation. The highest maxim for all new installations and refurbishments: “As much light as necessary, as little light as possible!” Compared to other lighting technologies, LED luminaires are best suited to meet this requirement since LED light can be directed particularly well using reflectors and lenses and can simply be switched and dimmed as required. In addition, LED luminaires have a significant advantage in protecting insects: short-wave light in the blue and UV range is particularly tempting for insects. This means that warm white LEDs (3,000-2,700 Kelvin colour temperature) with only a low short-wave radiation component are insect-friendly. Various research projects confirm this: expertly planned outdoor lighting systems with LEDs have a lower risk potential for insects, bats, birds, but also fish and amphibians compared to conventional lamps.