Entire energy efficiency of buildings

With the revised version of EU directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings (EPBD), the directive on reducing energy consumption and thus CO2 emissions of buildings of 2002 has been revised. Besides heating, ventilation and air conditioning of a building, it also considers artificial lighting – meaning artificial lighting used to fulfil visual tasks, not decorative lighting. The directive applies to new residential and service buildings with an overall floor space exceeding 1.000 m2 as well as existing residential and
service buildings with an overall floor space exceeding 1.000 m2 if larger-scale renovations of more than 25% of the building value are executed. .

Its implementation into German law via energy savings law and EnEV has made the creation of an energy ID mandatory for obtaining a construction permit.

In other European countries, corresponding legal regulations apply. In England, the Building Regulation has been effective since 2003. Belgium, France, Switzerland and the Netherlands have also been working with systems for energy balancing in buildings for a long time. A harmonisation of rating systems is not foreseeable at this point.

The intention of the EU directive is to label the energy efficiency of buildings using a building energy passport (see figure) similar to energy labels for household refrigerating appliances or lamps. In Germany, the energy passport is mandatory for all buildings – regardless of size – however, the energy share for lighting is not included for apartments and residential buildings.

The EU directive contains neither detailed energy values nor a method for determining the overall energy values of a building. This is the responsibility of European and national standards. When it comes to lighting, incorporating daylight is regarded as a significant potential for energy savings.

In Germany, the series of standards DIN V 18599 is employed ("Energy rating of buildings – calculating net, final and primary energy demand for heating, cooling, ventilation, warm water and lighting"). Its creation was managed by the IBP (Fraunhofer Institut für Bauphysik) in Stuttgart, involving experts of all concerned trades in industry, administration and science. It contains, among other things, user profiles which can be gathered from the table. References on yearly operating periods to be expected can also be gathered from the table.

Table 3.36: Uses and utilisation periods according to DIN V 18599-10 user profiles as well as photometric equipment according to DIN V 18599-4, appendix 5.
Absence factor = factor relating to the period of absence of occupants.